Thursday, May 14, 2009

Familiar Quotations - Part 14

Sect. 8._

All men possess in their bodies a poison which acts upon
serpents; and the human saliva, it is said, makes them take to
flight, as though they had been touched with boiling water. The
same substance, it is said, destroys them the moment it enters
their throat.[718-6]

_Natural History, Book vii. Sect. 15._

It has been observed that the height of a man from the crown of
the head to the sole of the foot is equal to the distance between
the tips of the middle fingers of the two hands when extended in
a straight line.

_Natural History. Book vii. Sect. 77._

When a building is about to fall down, all the mice desert

_Natural History. Book viii. Sect. 103._

Bears when first born are shapeless masses of white flesh a
little larger than mice, their claws alone being prominent. The
mother then licks them gradually into proper shape.[719-2]

_Natural History. Book viii. Sect. 126._

It is asserted that the dogs keep running when they drink at the
Nile, for fear of becoming a prey to the voracity of the

_Natural History. Book viii. Sect. 148._

It has become quite a common proverb that in wine there is

_Natural History. Book xiv. Sect. 141._

Cincinnatus was ploughing his four jugera of land upon the
Vaticanian Hill,--the same that are still known as the Quintian
Meadows,--when the messenger brought him the dictatorship,
finding him, the tradition says, stripped to the work.

_Natural History. Book xviii. Sect. 20._

The agricultural population, says Cato, produces the bravest men,
the most valiant soldiers, and a class of citizens the least
given of all to evil designs. . . . A bad bargain is always a
ground for repentance.

_Natural History. Book xviii. Sect. 26._

The best plan is, as the common proverb has it, to profit by the
folly of others.[720-1]

_Natural History. Book xviii. Sect. 31._

Always act in such a way as to secure the love of your

_Natural History. Book xviii. Sect. 44._

It is a maxim universally agreed upon in agriculture, that
nothing must be done too late; and again, that everything must be
done at its proper season; while there is a third precept which
reminds us that opportunities lost can never be regained.

_Natural History. Book xviii. Sect. 44._

The bird of passage known to us as the cuckoo.

_Natural History. Book xviii. Sect. 249._

Let not things, because they are common, enjoy for that the less
share of our consideration.

_Natural History. Book xix. Sect. 59._

Why is it that we entertain the belief that for every purpose odd
numbers are the most effectual?[720-3]

_Natural History. Book xxviii. Sect. 23._

It was a custom with Apelles, to which he most tenaciously
adhered, never to let any day pass, however busy he might be,
without exercising himself by tracing some outline or other,--a
practice which has now passed into a proverb.[720-4] It was also
a practice with him, when he had completed a work, to exhibit it
to the view of the passers-by in his studio, while he himself,
concealed behind the picture, would listen to the criticisms. . .
. Under these circumstances, they say that he was censured by a
shoemaker for having represented the shoes with one latchet too
few. The next day, the shoemaker, quite proud at seeing the
former error corrected, thanks to his advice, began to criticise
the leg; upon which Apelles, full of indignation, popped his head
out and reminded him that a shoemaker should give no opinion
beyond the shoes,[721-1]--a piece of advice which has equally
passed into a proverbial saying.

_Natural History. Book xxxv. Sect. 84._


[716-4] Bohn's Classical Library.

[717-1] Why does pouring oil on the sea make it clear and calm? Is
it for that the winds, slipping the smooth oil, have no force, nor
cause any waves?--PLUTARCH: _Natural Questions, ix._

The venerable Bede relates that Bishop Adain (A. D. 651) gave to a
company about to take a journey by sea "some holy oil, saying, 'I
know that when you go abroad you will meet with a storm and
contrary wind; but do you remember to cast this oil I give you
into the sea, and the wind shall cease
immediately.'"--_Ecclesiastical History, book iii. chap. xiv._

In Sparks's edition of Franklin's Works, vol. vi. p. 354, there
are letters between Franklin, Brownrigg, and Parish on the
stilling of waves by means of oil.

To man the earth seems altogether
No more a mother, but a step-dame rather.

DU BARTAS: _Divine Weekes and Workes, first week, third day._

[717-3] He is born naked, and falls a whining at the
first.--BURTON: _Anatomy of Melancholy, part i. sect. 2, mem. 3,
subsect. 10._

And when I was born I drew in the common air, and fell upon the
earth, which is of like nature; and the first voice which I
uttered was crying, as all others do.--_The Wisdom of Solomon,
vii. 3._

It was the custom among the ancients to place the new-born child
upon the ground immediately after its birth.

[718-1] This term of forty days is mentioned by Aristotle in his
Natural History, as also by some modern physiologists.

[718-2] See Tennyson, page 632.

[718-3] See Burns, page 446.

[718-4] Omne ignotum pro magnifico (Everything that is unknown is
taken to be grand).--TACITUS: _Agricola_, 30.

[718-5] See Sir Thomas Browne, page 218.

[718-6] Madame d'Abrantes relates that when Bonaparte was in Cairo
he sent for a serpent-detecter (Psylli) to remove two serpents
that had been seen in his house. He having enticed one of them
from his hiding-place, caught it in one hand, just below the
jaw-bone, in such a manner as to oblige the mouth to open, when
spitting into it, the effect was like magic: the reptile appeared
struck with instant death.--_Memoirs, vol. i. chap. lix._

[719-1] This is alluded to by Cicero in his letters to Atticus,
and is mentioned by Ælian (Animated Nature, book vi. chap. 41). It
is like our proverb, "Rats leave a sinking ship."

[719-2] See Burton, page 186.

Not unlike the bear which bringeth forth
In the end of thirty dayes a shapeless birth;
But after licking, it in shape she drawes,
And by degrees she fashions out the pawes,
The head, and neck, and finally doth bring
To a perfect beast that first deformed thing.

DU BARTAS: _Divine Weekes and Workes, first week, first day._

[719-3] See Phædrus, page 715.

[719-4] See Shakespeare, page 152.

[720-1] See Publius Syrus, page 708.

[720-2] A maxim of Cato.

[720-3] See Shakespeare, page 46. Also Lover, page 583.

Numero deus impare gaudet (The god delights in odd
numbers).--VIRGIL: _Eclogæ, 8, 75._

[720-4] Nulla dies abeat, quin linea ducta supersit.--ERASMUS.

The form generally quoted, "Nulla dies sine linea" (No day without
a line), is not attested.

[721-1] Ne supra crepidam sutor judicaret (Let not a shoemaker
judge above his shoe).

QUINTILIAN. 42-118 A. D.

We give to necessity the praise of virtue.[721-2]

_Institutiones Oratoriæ, i. 8, 14._

A liar should have a good memory.[721-3]

_Institutiones Oratoriæ, iv. 2, 91._

Vain hopes are often like the dreams of those who wake.[721-4]

_Institutiones Oratoriæ, vi. 2, 30._

Those who wish to appear wise among fools, among the wise seem

_Institutiones Oratoriæ, x. 7, 21._


[721-2] See Chaucer, page 3.

[721-3] See Sidney, page 264.

[721-4] See Prior, page 288.

[721-5] See Pope, page 332.

JUVENAL. 47-138 A. D.

No man ever became extremely wicked all at once.[721-6]

_Satire ii. 83._

Grammarian, orator, geometrician; painter, gymnastic teacher,
physician; fortune-teller, rope-dancer, conjuror,--he knew

_Satire iii. 76._

Nobility is the one only virtue.[721-8]

_Satire viii. 20._


[721-6] See Beaumont and Fletcher, page 197.

[721-7] See Dryden, page 268.

[721-8] See Percy, page 406.

MARTIAL. 40-102 A. D.

I do not love thee, Sabidius, nor can I say why; this only I can
say, I do not love thee.[722-1]

_Epigram i. 32._

The good man prolongs his life; to be able to enjoy one's past
life is to live twice.[722-2]

_Epigram x. 23, 7._

The bee enclosed and through the amber shown
Seems buried in the juice which was his own.[722-3]

_Book iv. 32._

Neither fear, nor wish for, your last day.[722-4]

_Book x. 47, 13._


[722-1] See Brown, page 286.

[722-2] See Pope, page 336.

[722-3] See Bacon, page 168.

[722-4] See Milton, page 240.

PLUTARCH. 46(?)-120(?) A. D.

(_From Dryden's translation of Plutarch's Lives, corrected and revised by
A. H. Clough._)

As geographers, Sosius, crowd into the edges of their maps parts
of the world which they do not know about, adding notes in the
margin to the effect that beyond this lies nothing but sandy
deserts full of wild beasts, and unapproachable bogs.[722-5]

_Life of Theseus._

From Themistocles began the saying, "He is a second Hercules."

_Life of Theseus._

The most perfect soul, says Heraclitus, is a dry light, which
flies out of the body as lightning breaks from a cloud.

_Life of Romulus._

Anacharsis coming to Athens, knocked at Solon's door, and told
him that he, being a stranger, was come to be his guest, and
contract a friendship with him; and Solon replying, "It is better
to make friends at home," Anacharsis replied, "Then you that are
at home make friendship with me."

_Life of Solon._

Themistocles said that he certainly could not make use of any
stringed instrument; could only, were a small and obscure city
put into his hands, make it great and glorious.

_Life of Themistocles._

Eurybiades lifting up his staff as if he were going to strike,
Themistocles said, "Strike, if you will; but hear."[723-1]

_Life of Themistocles._

Themistocles said to Antiphales, "Time, young man, has taught us
both a lesson."

_Life of Themistocles._

Laughing at his own son, who got his mother, and by his mother's
means his father also, to indulge him, he told him that he had
the most power of any one in Greece: "For the Athenians command
the rest of Greece, I command the Athenians, your mother commands
me, and you command your mother."[723-2]

_Life of Themistocles._

"You speak truth," said Themistocles; "I should never have been
famous if I had been of Seriphus;[723-3] nor you, had you been of

_Life of Themistocles._

Themistocles said that a man's discourse was like to a rich
Persian carpet, the beautiful figures and patterns of which can
be shown only by spreading and extending it out; when it is
contracted and folded up, they are obscured and lost.[723-4]

_Life of Themistocles._

When he was in great prosperity, and courted by many, seeing
himself splendidly served at his table, he turned to his children
and said: "Children, we had been undone, if we had not been

_Life of Themistocles._

Moral good is a practical stimulus; it is no sooner seen than it
inspires an impulse to practise.

_Life of Pericles._

For ease and speed in doing a thing do not give the work lasting
solidity or exactness of beauty.[724-1]

_Life of Pericles._

So very difficult a matter is it to trace and find out the truth
of anything by history.

_Life of Pericles._

Be ruled by time, the wisest counsellor of all.

_Life of Pericles._

To conduct great matters and never commit a fault is above the
force of human nature.

_Life of Fabius._

Menenius Agrippa concluded at length with the celebrated fable:
"It once happened that all the other members of a man mutinied
against the stomach, which they accused as the only idle,
uncontributing part in the whole body, while the rest were put to
hardships and the expense of much labour to supply and minister
to its appetites."

_Life of Coriolanus._

Knowledge of divine things for the most part, as Heraclitus says,
is lost to us by incredulity.

_Life of Coriolanus._

A Roman divorced from his wife, being highly blamed by his
friends, who demanded, "Was she not chaste? Was she not fair? Was
she not fruitful?" holding out his shoe, asked them whether it
was not new and well made. "Yet," added he, "none of you can tell
where it pinches me."

_Life of Æmilius Paulus._

The saying of old Antigonus, who when he was to fight at Andros,
and one told him, "The enemy's ships are more than ours,"
replied, "For how many then wilt thou reckon me?"[725-1]

_Life of Pelopidas._

Archimedes had stated, that given the force, any given weight
might be moved; and even boasted that if there were another
earth, by going into it he could remove this.

_Life of Marcellus._

It is a difficult task, O citizens, to make speeches to the
belly, which has no ears.[725-2]

_Life of Marcus Cato._

Cato used to assert that wise men profited more by fools than
fools by wise men; for that wise men avoided the faults of fools,
but that fools would not imitate the good examples of wise men.

_Life of Marcus Cato._

He said that in his whole life he most repented of three things:
one was that he had trusted a secret to a woman; another, that he
went by water when he might have gone by land; the third, that he
had remained one whole day without doing any business of moment.

_Life of Marcus Cato._

Marius said, "I see the cure is not worth the pain."[725-3]

_Life of Caius Marius._

Extraordinary rains pretty generally fall after great

_Life of Caius Marius._

Lysander said that the law spoke too softly to be heard in such a
noise of war.

_Life of Caius Marius._

As it is in the proverb, played Cretan against Cretan.[725-5]

_Life of Lysander._

Did you not know, then, that to-day Lucullus sups with Lucullus?

_Life of Lucullus._

It is no great wonder if in long process of time, while fortune
takes her course hither and thither, numerous coincidences should
spontaneously occur. If the number and variety of subjects to be
wrought upon be infinite, it is all the more easy for fortune,
with such an abundance of material, to effect this similarity of

_Life of Sertorius._

Perseverance is more prevailing than violence; and many things
which cannot be overcome when they are together, yield themselves
up when taken little by little.

_Life of Sertorius._

Agesilaus being invited once to hear a man who admirably imitated
the nightingale, he declined, saying he had heard the nightingale

_Life of Agesilaus II._

It is circumstance and proper measure that give an action its
character, and make it either good or bad.

_Life of Agesilaus II._

The old proverb was now made good, "the mountain had brought
forth a mouse."[726-3]

_Life of Agesilaus II._

Pompey bade Sylla recollect that more worshipped the rising than
the setting sun.[726-4]

_Life of Pompey._

When some were saying that if Cæsar should march against the city
they could not see what forces there were to resist him, Pompey
replied with a smile, bidding them be in no concern, "for
whenever I stamp my foot in any part of Italy there will rise up
forces enough in an instant, both horse and foot."

_Life of Pompey._

The most glorious exploits do not always furnish us with the
clearest discoveries of virtue or vice in men.

_Life of Alexander._

Whenever Alexander heard Philip had taken any town of importance,
or won any signal victory, instead of rejoicing at it altogether,
he would tell his companions that his father would anticipate
everything, and leave him and them no opportunities of performing
great and illustrious actions.[727-1]

_Life of Alexander._

Alexander said, "I assure you I had rather excel others in the
knowledge of what is excellent, than in the extent of my power
and dominion."

_Life of Alexander._

When Alexander asked Diogenes whether he wanted anything, "Yes,"
said he, "I would have you stand from between me and the sun."

_Life of Alexander._

When asked why he parted with his wife, Cæsar replied, "I wished
my wife to be not so much as suspected."[727-2]

_Life of Cæsar._

For my part, I had rather be the first man among these fellows
than the second man in Rome.[727-3]

_Life of Cæsar._

Using the proverb frequently in their mouths who enter upon
dangerous and bold attempts, "The die is cast," he took the

_Life of Cæsar._

"And this," said Cæsar, "you know, young man, is more
disagreeable for me to say than to do."[728-1]

_Life of Cæsar._

Go on, my friend, and fear nothing; you carry Cæsar and his
fortunes in your boat.[728-2]

_Life of Cæsar._

Cæsar said to the soothsayer, "The ides of March are come;" who
answered him calmly, "Yes, they are come, but they are not

_Life of Cæsar._

Even a nod from a person who is esteemed is of more force than a
thousand arguments or studied sentences from others.

_Life of Phocion._

Demosthenes told Phocion, "The Athenians will kill you some day
when they once are in a rage." "And you," said he, "if they are
once in their senses."[728-4]

_Life of Phocion._

Pythias once, scoffing at Demosthenes, said that his arguments
smelt of the lamp.

_Life of Demosthenes._

Demosthenes overcame and rendered more distinct his inarticulate
and stammering pronunciation by speaking with pebbles in his

_Life of Demosthenes._

In his house he had a large looking-glass, before which he would
stand and go through his exercises.

_Life of Demosthenes._

Cicero called Aristotle a river of flowing gold, and said of
Plato's Dialogues, that if Jupiter were to speak, it would be in
language like theirs.

_Life of Cicero._

(_From Plutarch's Morals. Translated by several hands; corrected and
revised by W. W. Goodwin, Ph.D., Harvard University._)

For water continually dropping will wear hard rocks

_Of the Training of Children._

It is a true proverb, that if you live with a lame man you will
learn to halt.

_Of the Training of Children._

The very spring and root of honesty and virtue lie in the
felicity of lighting on good education.

_Of the Training of Children._

It is indeed a desirable thing to be well descended, but the
glory belongs to our ancestors.

_Of the Training of Children._

According to the proverb, the best things are the most difficult.

_Of the Training of Children._

To sing the same tune, as the saying is, is in everything cloying
and offensive; but men are generally pleased with variety.

_Of the Training of Children._

Children are to be won to follow liberal studies by exhortations
and rational motives, and on no account to be forced thereto by

_Of the Training of Children._

Nothing made the horse so fat as the king's eye.

_Of the Training of Children._

Democritus said, words are but the shadows of actions.

_Of the Training of Children._

'T is a wise saying, Drive on your own track.

_Of the Training of Children._

It is a point of wisdom to be silent when occasion requires, and
better than to speak, though never so well.

_Of the Training of Children._

Eat not thy heart; which forbids to afflict our souls, and waste
them with vexatious cares.[729-1]

_Of the Training of Children._

Abstain from beans; that is, keep out of public offices, for
anciently the choice of the officers of state was made by beans.

_Of the Training of Children._

When men are arrived at the goal, they should not turn

_Of the Training of Children._

The whole life of man is but a point of time; let us enjoy it,
therefore, while it lasts, and not spend it to no purpose.

_Of the Training of Children._

An old doting fool, with one foot already in the grave.[729-3]

_Of the Training of Children._

Xenophanes said, "I confess myself the greatest coward in the
world, for I dare not do an ill thing."

_Of Bashfulness._

One made the observation of the people of Asia that they were all
slaves to one man, merely because they could not pronounce that
syllable No.

_Of Bashfulness._

Euripides was wont to say, "Silence is an answer to a wise man."

_Of Bashfulness._

Zeno first started that doctrine that knavery is the best defence
against a knave.[730-1]

_Of Bashfulness._

Alexander wept when he heard from Anaxarchus that there was an
infinite number of worlds; and his friends asking him if any
accident had befallen him, he returns this answer: "Do you not
think it a matter worthy of lamentation that when there is such a
vast multitude of them, we have not yet conquered one?"

_On the Tranquillity of the Mind._

Like the man who threw a stone at a bitch, but hit his
step-mother, on which he exclaimed, "Not so bad!"

_On the Tranquillity of the Mind._

Pittacus said, "Every one of you hath his particular plague, and
my wife is mine; and he is very happy who hath this only."

_On the Tranquillity of the Mind._

He was a man, which, as Plato saith, is a very inconstant

_On the Tranquillity of the Mind._

The pilot cannot mitigate the billows or calm the winds.[730-3]

_On the Tranquillity of the Mind._

I, for my own part, had much rather people should say of me that
there neither is nor ever was such a man as Plutarch, than that
they should say, "Plutarch is an unsteady, fickle, froward,
vindictive, and touchy fellow."

_Of Superstition._

Scilurus on his death-bed, being about to leave fourscore sons
surviving, offered a bundle of darts to each of them, and bade
them break them. When all refused, drawing out one by one, he
easily broke them,--thus teaching them that if they held
together, they would continue strong; but if they fell out and
were divided, they would become weak.

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders._[731-1] _Scilurus._

Dionysius the Elder, being asked whether he was at leisure, he
replied, "God forbid that it should ever befall me!"

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Dionysius._

A prating barber asked Archelaus how he would be trimmed. He
answered, "In silence."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Archelaus._

When Philip had news brought him of divers and eminent successes
in one day, "O Fortune!" said he, "for all these so great
kindnesses do me some small mischief."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Philip._

There were two brothers called Both and Either; perceiving Either
was a good, understanding, busy fellow, and Both a silly fellow
and good for little, Philip said, "Either is both, and Both is

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Philip._

Philip being arbitrator betwixt two wicked persons, he commanded
one to fly out of Macedonia and the other to pursue him.

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Philip._

Being about to pitch his camp in a likely place, and hearing
there was no hay to be had for the cattle, "What a life," said
he, "is ours, since we must live according to the convenience of

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Philip._

"These Macedonians," said he, "are a rude and clownish people,
that call a spade a spade."[731-2]

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Philip._

He made one of Antipater's recommendation a judge; and perceiving
afterwards that his hair and beard were coloured, he removed him,
saying, "I could not think one that was faithless in his hair
could be trusty in his deeds."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Philip._

Being nimble and light-footed, his father encouraged him to run
in the Olympic race. "Yes," said he, "if there were any kings
there to run with me."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Alexander._

When Darius offered him ten thousand talents, and to divide Asia
equally with him, "I would accept it," said Parmenio, "were I
Alexander." "And so truly would I," said Alexander, "if I were
Parmenio." But he answered Darius that the earth could not bear
two suns, nor Asia two kings.

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Alexander._

When he was wounded with an arrow in the ankle, and many ran to
him that were wont to call him a god, he said smiling, "That is
blood, as you see, and not, as Homer saith, 'such humour as
distils from blessed gods.'"

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Alexander._

Aristodemus, a friend of Antigonus, supposed to be a cook's son,
advised him to moderate his gifts and expenses. "Thy words," said
he, "Aristodemus, smell of the apron."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Antigonus I._

Thrasyllus the Cynic begged a drachm of Antigonus. "That," said
he, "is too little for a king to give." "Why, then," said the
other, "give me a talent." "And that," said he, "is too much for
a Cynic (or, for a dog) to receive."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Antigonus I._

Antagoras the poet was boiling a conger, and Antigonus, coming
behind him as he was stirring his skillet, said, "Do you think,
Antagoras, that Homer boiled congers when he wrote the deeds of
Agamemnon?" Antagoras replied, "Do you think, O king, that
Agamemnon, when he did such exploits, was a peeping in his army
to see who boiled congers?"

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Antigonus I._

Pyrrhus said, "If I should overcome the Romans in another fight,
I were undone."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Pyrrhus._

Themistocles being asked whether he would rather be Achilles or
Homer, said, "Which would you rather be,--a conqueror in the
Olympic games, or the crier that proclaims who are conquerors?"

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Themistocles._

He preferred an honest man that wooed his daughter, before a rich
man. "I would rather," said Themistocles, "have a man that wants
money than money that wants a man."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Themistocles._

Alcibiades had a very handsome dog, that cost him seven thousand
drachmas; and he cut off his tail, "that," said he, "the
Athenians may have this story to tell of me, and may concern
themselves no further with me."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Alcibiades._

Being summoned by the Athenians out of Sicily to plead for his
life, Alcibiades absconded, saying that that criminal was a fool
who studied a defence when he might fly for it.

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Alcibiades._

Lamachus chid a captain for a fault; and when he had said he
would do so no more, "Sir," said he, "in war there is no room for
a second miscarriage." Said one to Iphicrates, "What are ye
afraid of?" "Of all speeches," said he, "none is so dishonourable
for a general as 'I should not have thought of it.'"

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Iphicrates._

To Harmodius, descended from the ancient Harmodius, when he
reviled Iphicrates [a shoemaker's son] for his mean birth, "My
nobility," said he, "begins in me, but yours ends in you."[733-1]

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Iphicrates._

Once when Phocion had delivered an opinion which pleased the
people, . . . he turned to his friend and said, "Have I not
unawares spoken some mischievous thing or other?"

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Phocion._

Phocion compared the speeches of Leosthenes to cypress-trees.
"They are tall," said he, "and comely, but bear no fruit."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Phocion._

Lycurgus the Lacedæmonian brought long hair into fashion among
his countrymen, saying that it rendered those that were handsome
more beautiful, and those that were deformed more terrible. To
one that advised him to set up a democracy in Sparta, "Pray,"
said Lycurgus, "do you first set up a democracy in your own

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Lycurgus._

King Agis said, "The Lacedæmonians are not wont to ask how many,
but where the enemy are."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Agis._

Lysander said, "Where the lion's skin will not reach, it must be
pieced with the fox's."[734-1]

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Lysander._

To one that promised to give him hardy cocks that would die
fighting, "Prithee," said Cleomenes, "give me cocks that will
kill fighting."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Cleomenes._

When Eudæmonidas heard a philosopher arguing that only a wise man
can be a good general, "This is a wonderful speech," said he;
"but he that saith it never heard the sound of trumpets."

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Eudæmonidas._

A soldier told Pelopidas, "We are fallen among the enemies." Said
he, "How are we fallen among them more than they among us?"

_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders. Pelopidas._

Cato the elder wondered how that city was preserved wherein a
fish was sold for more than an ox.

_Roman Apophthegms. Cato the Elder._

Cato instigated the magistrates to punish all offenders, saying
that they that did not prevent crimes when they might, encouraged
them.[734-2] Of young men, he liked them that blushed better than
those who looked pale.

_Roman Apophthegms. Cato the Elder._

Cato requested old men not to add the disgrace of wickedness to
old age, which was accompanied with many other evils.

_Roman Apophthegms. Cato the Elder._

He said they that were serious in ridiculous matters would be
ridiculous in serious affairs.

_Roman Apophthegms. Cato the Elder._

Cicero said loud-bawling orators were driven by their weakness to
noise, as lame men to take horse.

_Roman Apophthegms. Cicero._

After the battle in Pharsalia, when Pompey was fled, one Nonius
said they had seven eagles left still, and advised to try what
they would do. "Your advice," said Cicero, "were good if we were
to fight jackdaws."

_Roman Apophthegms. Cicero._

After he routed Pharnaces Ponticus at the first assault, he wrote
thus to his friends: "I came, I saw, I conquered."[735-1]

_Roman Apophthegms. Cæsar._

As Cæsar was at supper the discourse was of death,--which sort
was the best. "That," said he, "which is unexpected."

_Roman Apophthegms. Cæsar._

As Athenodorus was taking his leave of Cæsar, "Remember," said
he, "Cæsar, whenever you are angry, to say or do nothing before
you have repeated the four-and-twenty letters to yourself."

_Roman Apophthegms. Cæsar Augustus._

"Young men," said Cæsar, "hear an old man to whom old men
hearkened when he was young."

_Roman Apophthegms. Cæsar Augustus._

Remember what Simonides said,--that he never repented that he had
held his tongue, but often that he had spoken.[735-2]

_Rules for the Preservation of Health. 7._

Custom is almost a second nature.[735-3]

_Rules for the Preservation of Health. 18._

Epaminondas is reported wittily to have said of a good man that
died about the time of the battle of Leuctra, "How came he to
have so much leisure as to die, when there was so much stirring?"

_Rules for the Preservation of Health. 25._

Have in readiness this saying of Solon, "But we will not give up
our virtue in exchange for their wealth."

_How to profit by our Enemies._

Socrates thought that if all our misfortunes were laid in one
common heap, whence every one must take an equal portion, most
persons would be contented to take their own and depart.

_Consolation to Apollonius._

Diogenes the Cynic, when a little before his death he fell into a
slumber, and his physician rousing him out of it asked him
whether anything ailed him, wisely answered, "Nothing, sir; only
one brother anticipates another,--Sleep before Death."

_Consolation to Apollonius._

About Pontus there are some creatures of such an extempore being
that the whole term of their life is confined within the space of
a day; for they are brought forth in the morning, are in the
prime of their existence at noon, grow old at night, and then

_Consolation to Apollonius._

The measure of a man's life is the well spending of it, and not
the length.

_Consolation to Apollonius._

For many, as Cranton tells us, and those very wise men, not now
but long ago, have deplored the condition of human nature,
esteeming life a punishment, and to be born a man the highest
pitch of calamity; this, Aristotle tells us, Silenus declared
when he was brought captive to Midas.

_Consolation to Apollonius._

There are two sentences inscribed upon the Delphic oracle, hugely
accommodated to the usages of man's life: "Know thyself,"[736-1]
and "Nothing too much;" and upon these all other precepts depend.

_Consolation to Apollonius._

To one commending an orator for his skill in amplifying petty
matters, Agesilaus said, "I do not think that shoemaker a good
workman that makes a great shoe for a little foot."

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Agesilaus the Great._

"I will show," said Agesilaus, "that it is not the places that
grace men, but men the places."

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Agesilaus the Great._

When one asked him what boys should learn, "That," said he,
"which they shall use when men."

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Agesilaus the Great._

Agesilaus was very fond of his children; and it is reported that
once toying with them he got astride upon a reed as upon a horse,
and rode about the room; and being seen by one of his friends, he
desired him not to speak of it till he had children of his own.

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Agesilaus the Great._

When Demaratus was asked whether he held his tongue because he
was a fool or for want of words, he replied, "A fool cannot hold
his tongue."

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Demaratus._

Lysander, when Dionysius sent him two gowns, and bade him choose
which he would carry to his daughter, said, "She can choose
best," and so took both away with him.

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Lysander._

A physician, after he had felt the pulse of Pausanias, and
considered his constitution, saying, "He ails nothing," "It is
because, sir," he replied, "I use none of your physic."

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Pausanias the Son of Phistoanax._

And when the physician said, "Sir, you are an old man," "That
happens," replied Pausanias, "because you never were my doctor."

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Pausanias the Son of Phistoanax._

When one told Plistarchus that a notorious railer spoke well of
him, "I 'll lay my life," said he, "somebody hath told him I am
dead, for he can speak well of no man living."

_Laconic Apophthegms. Of Plistarchus._

Anacharsis said a man's felicity consists not in the outward and
visible favours and blessings of Fortune, but in the inward and
unseen perfections and riches of the mind.

_The Banquet of the Seven Wise Men. 11._

Said Periander, "Hesiod might as well have kept his breath to
cool his pottage."[738-1]

_The Banquet of the Seven Wise Men. 14._

Socrates said, "Bad men live that they may eat and drink, whereas
good men eat and drink that they may live."[738-2]

_How a Young Man ought to hear Poems. 4._

And Archimedes, as he was washing, thought of a manner of
computing the proportion of gold in King Hiero's crown by seeing
the water flowing over the bathing-stool. He leaped up as one
possessed or inspired, crying, "I have found it! Eureka!"

_Pleasure not attainable according to Epicurus. 11._

Said Scopas of Thessaly, "We rich men count our felicity and
happiness to lie in these superfluities, and not in those
necessary things."[738-3]

_Of the Love of Wealth._

That proverbial saying, "Ill news goes quick and far."

_Of Inquisitiveness._

A traveller at Sparta, standing long upon one leg, said to a
Lacedæmonian, "I do not believe you can do as much." "True," said
he, "but every goose can."

_Remarkable Speeches._

Spintharus, speaking in commendation of Epaminondas, says he
scarce ever met with any man who knew more and spoke less.

_Of Hearing. 6._

It is a thing of no great difficulty to raise objections against
another man's oration,--nay, it is a very easy matter; but to
produce a better in its place is a work extremely troublesome.

_Of Hearing. 6._

Antiphanes said merrily, that in a certain city the cold was so
intense that words were congealed as soon as spoken, but that
after some time they thawed and became audible; so that the words
spoken in winter were articulated next summer.[739-1]

_Of Man's Progress in Virtue._

As those persons who despair of ever being rich make little
account of small expenses, thinking that little added to a little
will never make any great sum.

_Of Man's Progress in Virtue._

What is bigger than an elephant? But this also is become man's
plaything, and a spectacle at public solemnities; and it learns
to skip, dance, and kneel.

_Of Fortune._

No man ever wetted clay and then left it, as if there would be
bricks by chance and fortune.

_Of Fortune._

Alexander was wont to say, "Were I not Alexander, I would be

_Of the Fortune or Virtue of Alexander the Great._

When the candles are out all women are fair.[739-2]

_Conjugal Precepts._

Like watermen, who look astern while they row the boat

_Whether 't was rightfully said, Live Concealed._

Socrates said he was not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of
the world.[739-4]

_Of Banishment._

Anaximander says that men were first produced in fishes, and when
they were grown up and able to help themselves were thrown up,
and so lived upon the land.

_Symposiacs. Book. viii. Question viii._

Athenodorus says hydrophobia, or water-dread, was first
discovered in the time of Asclepiades.

_Symposiacs. Book. viii. Question ix._

Let us not wonder if something happens which never was before, or
if something doth not appear among us with which the ancients
were acquainted.

_Symposiacs. Book viii. Question ix._

Why does pouring oil on the sea make it clear and calm? Is it for
that the winds, slipping the smooth oil, have no force, nor cause
any waves?[740-1]

The great god Pan is dead.[740-2]

_Why the Oracles cease to give Answers._

I am whatever was, or is, or will be; and my veil no mortal ever
took up.[740-3]

_Of Isis and Osiris._

When Hermodotus in his poems described Antigonus as the son of
Helios, "My valet-de-chambre," said he, "is not aware of

_Of Isis and Osiris._

There is no debt with so much prejudice put off as that of

_Of those whom God is slow to punish._

It is a difficult thing for a man to resist the natural necessity
of mortal passions.

_Of those whom God is slow to punish._

He is a fool who lets slip a bird in the hand for a bird in the

_Of Garrulity._

We are more sensible of what is done against custom than against

_Of Eating of Flesh. Tract 1._

When Demosthenes was asked what was the first part of oratory, he
answered, "Action;" and which was the second, he replied,
"Action;" and which was the third, he still answered, "Action."

_Lives of the Ten Orators._

Xenophon says that there is no sound more pleasing than one's own

_Whether an Aged Man ought to meddle in State Affairs._

Lampis, the sea commander, being asked how he got his wealth,
answered, "My greatest estate I gained easily enough, but the
smaller slowly and with much labour."

_Whether an Aged Man ought to meddle in State Affairs._

The general himself ought to be such a one as can at the same
time see both forward and backward.

_Whether an Aged Man ought to meddle in State Affairs._

Statesmen are not only liable to give an account of what they say
or do in public, but there is a busy inquiry made into their very
meals, beds, marriages, and every other sportive or serious

_Political Precepts._

Leo Byzantius said, "What would you do, if you saw my wife, who
scarce reaches up to my knees? . . . Yet," went he on, "as little
as we are, when we fall out with each other, the city of
Byzantium is not big enough to hold us."

_Political Precepts._

Cato said, "I had rather men should ask why my statue is not set
up, than why it is."

_Political Precepts._

It was the saying of Bion, that though the boys throw stones at
frogs in sport, yet the frogs do not die in sport but in

_Which are the most crafty, Water or Land Animals? 7._

Both Empedocles and Heraclitus held it for a truth that man could
not be altogether cleared from injustice in dealing with beasts
as he now does.

_Which are the most crafty, Water or Land Animals? 7._

For to err in opinion, though it be not the part of wise men, is
at least human.[742-1]

_Against Colotes._

Simonides calls painting silent poetry, and poetry speaking

_Whether the Athenians were more Warlike or Learned. 3._

As Meander says, "For our mind is God;" and as Heraclitus, "Man's
genius is a deity."

_Platonic Questions. i._

Pythagoras, when he was asked what time was, answered that it was
the soul of this world.

_Platonic Questions. viii. 4._


[722-5] See Swift, page 289.

[723-1] "Strike," said he, "but hear me."--_Apophthegms of Kings
and Great Commanders._ (_Themistocles._)

[723-2] Diophantus, the young son of Themistocles, made his boast
often and in many companies, that whatsoever pleased him pleased
also all Athens; for whatever he liked, his mother liked; and
whatever his mother liked, Themistocles liked; and whatever
Themistocles liked, all the Athenians liked.--_Of the Training of

When the son of Themistocles was a little saucy toward his mother,
he said that this boy had more power than all the Grecians; for
the Athenians governed Greece, he the Athenians, his wife him, and
his son his wife.--_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders._

[723-3] An obscure island.

[723-4] Themistocles said speech was like to tapestry; and like
it, when it was spread it showed its figures, but when it was
folded up, hid and spoiled them.--_Apophthegms of Kings and Great
Commanders._ (_Themistocles._)

[724-1] See Chaucer, page 3.

[725-1] The pilot telling Antigonus the enemy outnumbered him in
ships, he said, "But how many ships do you reckon my presence to
be worth?" _Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders._
(_Antigonus II._)

[725-2] The belly has no ears, nor is it to be filled with fair
words.--RABELAIS: _book iv. chap. lxvii._

[725-3] See Bacon, page 165.

[725-4] This has been observed in modern times, and attributed to
the effect of gunpowder.

[725-5] Or cheat against cheat. The Cretans were famous as liars.

[726-1] 'T is one and the same Nature that rolls on her course,
and whoever has sufficiently considered the present state of
things might certainly conclude as to both the future and the
past.--MONTAIGNE: _Essays, book ii. chap. xii. Apology for Raimond

I shall be content if those shall pronounce my History useful who
desire to give a view of events as they did really happen, and as
they are very likely, in accordance with human nature, to repeat
themselves at some future time,--if not exactly the same, yet very
similar.--THUCYDIDES: _Historia, i. 2, 2._

What is this day supported by precedents will hereafter become a
precedent.--_Ibid., Annals, xi. 24._

[726-2] Agesilaus being exhorted to hear one that imitated the
voice of a nightingale, "I have often," said he, "heard
nightingales themselves."--_Apophthegms of Kings and Great
Commanders._ (_Agesilaus._)

[726-3] See Horace, page 706.

[726-4] See Garrick, page 387.

He [Tiberius] upbraided Macro in no obscure and indirect terms
"with forsaking the setting sun and turning to the
rising."--TACITUS: _Annals, book iv. c. 47, 20._

[727-1] While Alexander was a boy, Philip had great success in his
affairs, at which he did not rejoice, but told the children that
were brought up with him, "My father will leave me nothing to
do."--_Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders._ (_Alexander._)

[727-2] Cæsar's wife ought to be free from suspicion.--_Roman
Apophthegms._ (_Cæsar._)

[727-3] I had rather be the first in this town than second in

[727-4] He passed the river Rubicon, saying, "Let every die be

[728-1] Cæsar said to Metellus, "This, young man, is harder for me
to say than do."--_Roman Apophthegms._ (_Cæsar._)

[728-2] Trust Fortune, and know that you carry Cæsar.--_Ibid._

[728-3] See Shakespeare, page 112.

[728-4] Demosthenes the orator told Phocion, "If the Athenians
should be mad, they would kill you." "Like enough," said he,--"me
if they were mad, but you if they were wise."--_Apophthegms of
Kings and Great Commanders._ (_Phocion._)

[728-5] See Lyly, page 32.

[729-1] See Spenser, page 30.

[729-2] See Publius Syrus, page 711.

[729-3] See Beaumont and Fletcher, page 198.

[730-1] Set a thief to catch a thief.--BOHN: _A Hand-book of

[730-2] Man in sooth is a marvellous, vain, fickle, and unstable
subject.--MONTAIGNE: _Works, book i. chap. i. That Men by various
Ways arrive at the same End._

[730-3] See Publius Syrus, page 712.

[731-1] Rejected by some critics as not a genuine work of

[731-2] Ta syka syka, tên skaphên de skaphên
onomazôn.--ARISTOPHANES, as quoted in Lucian, Quom. Hist. sit
conscrib. 41.

Brought up like a rude Macedon, and taught to call a spade a
spade.--GOSSON: _Ephemerides of Phialo_ (1579).

[733-1] I am my own ancestor.--JUNOT, DUC D'ABRANTES (when asked
as to his ancestry).

[734-1] Lysander said, "When the lion's skin cannot prevail, a
little of the fox's must be used."--_Laconic Apophthegms._

[734-2] Pardon one offence, and you encourage the commission of
many.--PUBLIUS SYRUS: _Maxim 750._

[735-1] Veni, vidi, vici.

[735-2] See Publius Syrus, page 714.

[735-3] See "Of Unknown Authorship," page 707. Also Publius Syrus,
page 709.

[736-1] See Pope, page 317.

Plutarch ascribes this saying to Plato. It is also ascribed to
Pythagoras, Chilo, Thales, Cleobulus, Bias, and Socrates; also to
Phemonë, a mythical Greek poetess of the ante-Homeric period.
Juvenal (Satire xi. 27) says that this precept descended from

[738-1] Spare your breath to cool your porridge.--RABELAIS:
_Works, book v. chap. xxviii._

[738-2] See Fielding, page 363.

He used to say that other men lived to eat, but that he ate to
live.--DIOGENES LAERTIUS: _Socrates, xiv._

[738-3] See Holmes, page 637.

[739-1] In the "Adventures of Baron Munchausen" (Rudolphe Erich
Raspe), stories gathered from various sources, is found the story
of sound being frozen for a time in a post-horn, which when thawed
gave a variety of tunes. A somewhat similar account is found in
Rabelais, book iv. chaps. lv. lvi., referring to Antiphanes.

[739-2] See Heywood, page 11.

[739-3] See Burton, page 186.

[739-4] See Garrison, page 605.

[740-1] See Pliny, page 717.

[740-2] See Mrs. Browning, page 621.

Plutarch relates (Isis and Osiris) that a ship well laden with
passengers drove with the tide near the Isles of Paxi, when a loud
voice was heard by most of the passengers calling unto one Thanus.
The voice then said aloud to him, "When you are arrived at
Palodes, take care to make it known that the great god Pan is

[740-3] I am the things that are, and those that are to be, and
those that have been. No one ever lifted my skirts; the fruit
which I bore was the sun.--PROCLUS: _On Plato's Timæus, p. 30 D._
(Inscription in the temple of Neith at Sais, in Egypt.)

[740-4] No man is a hero to his valet-de-chambre.--MARSHAL CATINAT

Few men have been admired by their domestics.--MONTAIGNE: _Essays,
book iii. chap. 2._

This phrase, "No man is a hero to his valet," is commonly
attributed to Madame de Sévigné, but on the authority of Madame
Aissé (Letters, edited by Jules Ravenal, 1853) it really belongs
to Madame Cornuel.

[740-5] See Heywood, page 15.

Though this may be play to you,
'T is death to us.

ROGER L' ESTRANGE: _Fables from Several Authors. Fable 398._

[742-1] See Pope, page 325.

EPICTETUS. _Circa_ 60 A. D.

(_The translation used here is that of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, based
on that of Elizabeth Carter_ (1866).)

To a reasonable creature, that alone is insupportable which is
unreasonable; but everything reasonable may be supported.

_Discourses. Chap. ii._

Yet God hath not only granted these faculties, by which we may
bear every event without being depressed or broken by it, but
like a good prince and a true father, hath placed their exercise
above restraint, compulsion, or hindrance, and wholly without our
own control.

_Discourses. Chap. vi._

In a word, neither death, nor exile, nor pain, nor anything of
this kind is the real cause of our doing or not doing any action,
but our inward opinions and principles.

_Discourses. Chap. xi._

Reason is not measured by size or height, but by principle.

_Discourses. Chap. xii._

O slavish man! will you not bear with your own brother, who has
God for his Father, as being a son from the same stock, and of
the same high descent? But if you chance to be placed in some
superior station, will you presently set yourself up for a

_Discourses. Chap. xiii._

When you have shut your doors, and darkened your room, remember
never to say that you are alone, for you are not alone; but God
is within, and your genius is within,--and what need have they of
light to see what you are doing?

_Discourses. Chap. xiv._

No great thing is created suddenly, any more than a bunch of
grapes or a fig. If you tell me that you desire a fig, I answer
you that there must be time. Let it first blossom, then bear
fruit, then ripen.

_Discourses. Chap. xv._

Any one thing in the creation is sufficient to demonstrate a
Providence to an humble and grateful mind.

_Discourses. Chap. xvi._

Were I a nightingale, I would act the part of a nightingale; were
I a swan, the part of a swan.

_Discourses. Chap. xvi._

Since it is Reason which shapes and regulates all other things,
it ought not itself to be left in disorder.

_Discourses. Chap. xvii._

If what the philosophers say be true,--that all men's actions
proceed from one source; that as they assent from a persuasion
that a thing is so, and dissent from a persuasion that it is not,
and suspend their judgment from a persuasion that it is
uncertain,--so likewise they seek a thing from a persuasion that
it is for their advantage.

_Discourses. Chap. xviii._

Practise yourself, for heaven's sake, in little things; and
thence proceed to greater.

_Discourses. Chap. xviii._

Every art and every faculty contemplates certain things as its
principal objects.

_Discourses. Chap. xx._

Why, then, do you walk as if you had swallowed a ramrod?

_Discourses. Chap. xxi._

When one maintains his proper attitude in life, he does not long
after externals. What would you have, O man?

_Discourses. Chap. xxi._

Difficulties are things that show what men are.

_Discourses. Chap. xxiv._

If we are not stupid or insincere when we say that the good or
ill of man lies within his own will, and that all beside is
nothing to us, why are we still troubled?

_Discourses. Chap. xxv._

In theory there is nothing to hinder our following what we are
taught; but in life there are many things to draw us aside.

_Discourses. Chap. xxvi._

Appearances to the mind are of four kinds. Things either are what
they appear to be; or they neither are, nor appear to be; or they
are, and do not appear to be; or they are not, and yet appear to
be. Rightly to aim in all these cases is the wise man's task.

_Discourses. Chap. xxvii._

The appearance of things to the mind is the standard of every
action to man.

_That we ought not to be angry with Mankind. Chap. xxviii._

The essence of good and evil is a certain disposition of the

_Of Courage. Chap. xxix._

It is not reasonings that are wanted now; for there are books
stuffed full of stoical reasonings.

_Of Courage. Chap. xxix._

For what constitutes a child?--Ignorance. What constitutes a
child?--Want of instruction; for they are our equals so far as
their degree of knowledge permits.

_That Courage is not inconsistent with Caution. Book ii. Chap. i._

Appear to know only this,--never to fail nor fall.

_That Courage is not inconsistent with Caution. Book ii. Chap. i._

The materials of action are variable, but the use we make of them
should be constant.

_How Nobleness of Mind may be consistent with Prudence. Chap. v._

Shall I show you the muscular training of a philosopher? "What
muscles are those?"--A will undisappointed; evils avoided; powers
daily exercised; careful resolutions; unerring decisions.

_Wherein consists the Essence of Good. Chap. viii._

Dare to look up to God and say, "Make use of me for the future as
Thou wilt. I am of the same mind; I am one with Thee. I refuse
nothing which seems good to Thee. Lead me whither Thou wilt.
Clothe me in whatever dress Thou wilt."

_That we do not study to make Use of the established Principles
concerning Good and Evil. Chap. xvi._

What is the first business of one who studies philosophy? To part
with self-conceit. For it is impossible for any one to begin to
learn what he thinks that he already knows.

_How to apply general Principles to particular Cases. Chap. xvii._

Every habit and faculty is preserved and increased by
correspondent actions,--as the habit of walking, by walking; of
running, by running.

_How the Semblances of Things are to be combated. Chap. xviii._

Whatever you would make habitual, practise it; and if you would
not make a thing habitual, do not practise it, but habituate
yourself to something else.

_How the Semblances of Things are to be combated. Chap. xviii._

Reckon the days in which you have not been angry. I used to be
angry every day; now every other day; then every third and fourth
day; and if you miss it so long as thirty days, offer a sacrifice
of thanksgiving to God.

_How the Semblances of Things are to be combated. Chap. xviii._

Be not hurried away by excitement, but say, "Semblance, wait for
me a little. Let me see what you are and what you represent. Let
me try you."

_How the Semblances of Things are to be combated. Chap. xviii._

Things true and evident must of necessity be recognized by those
who would contradict them.

_Concerning the Epicureans. Chap. xx._

There are some things which men confess with ease, and others
with difficulty.

_Of Inconsistency. Chap. xxi._

Who is there whom bright and agreeable children do not attract to
play and creep and prattle with them?

_Concerning a Person whom he treated with Disregard. Chap. xxiv._

Two rules we should always have ready,--that there is nothing
good or evil save in the will; and that we are not to lead
events, but to follow them.

_In what Manner we ought to bear Sickness. Book iii. Chap. x._

In every affair consider what precedes and what follows, and then
undertake it.[746-1]

_That Everything is to be undertaken with Circumspection. Chap. xv._

There is a fine circumstance connected with the character of a
Cynic,--that he must be beaten like an ass, and yet when beaten
must love those who beat him, as the father, as the brother of

_Of the Cynic Philosophy. Chap. xxii._

First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you
have to do.

_Concerning such as read and dispute ostentatiously. Chap. xxiii._

Let not another's disobedience to Nature become an ill to you;
for you were not born to be depressed and unhappy with others,
but to be happy with them. And if any is unhappy, remember that
he is so for himself; for God made all men to enjoy felicity and

_That we ought not to be affected by Things not in our own Power. Chap.

Everything has two handles,--one by which it may be borne;
another by which it cannot.

_Enchiridion. xliii._


[746-1] See Publius Syrus, page 712.

TACITUS. 54-119 A. D.

(_The Oxford Translation. Bohn's Classical Library._)

The images of twenty of the most illustrious families--the
Manlii, the Quinctii, and other names of equal splendour--were
carried before it [the bier of Junia]. Those of Brutus and
Cassius were not displayed; but for that very reason they shone
with pre-eminent lustre.[747-1]

_Annales. iii. 76. 11._

He had talents equal to business, and aspired no higher.[747-2]

_Annales. vi. 39, 17._

He [Tiberius] upbraided Macro, in no obscure and indirect terms,
"with forsaking the setting sun and turning to the

_Annales. vi. 52_ (46).

He possessed a peculiar talent of producing effect in whatever he
said or did.[747-4]

_Historiæ. ii. 80._

Some might consider him as too fond of fame; for the desire of
glory clings even to the best men longer than any other

_Historiæ. iv. 6._

The gods looked with favour on superior courage.[747-6]

_Historiæ. iv. 17._

They make solitude, which they call peace.[747-7]

_Agricola. 30._

Think of your ancestors and your posterity.[747-8]

_Agricola. 32._

It belongs to human nature to hate those you have injured.[747-9]

_Agricola. 42._


[747-1] Lord John Russell, alluding to an expression used by him
("Conspicuous by his absence") in his address to the electors of
the city of London, said, "It is not an original expression of
mine, but is taken from one of the greatest historians of

[747-2] See Mathew Henry, page 284.

[747-3] See Plutarch, page 726.

[747-4] See Chesterfield, page 353.

[747-5] See Milton, page 247.

[747-6] See Gibbon, page 430.

[747-7] See Byron, page 550.

[747-8] See John Quincy Adams, page 458.

[747-9] See Seneca, page 714.


(_Translation by William Melmoth. Bohn's Classical Library._)

Modestus said of Regulus that he was "the biggest rascal that
walks upon two legs."

_Letters._[748-1] _Book i. Letter v. 14._

There is nothing to write about, you say. Well, then, write and
let me know just this,--that there _is_ nothing to write about;
or tell me in the good old style if you are well. That 's right.
I am quite well.[748-2]

_Letters. Book i. Letter xi. 1._

Never do a thing concerning the rectitude of which you are in

_Letters. Book i. Letter xviii. 5._

The living voice is that which sways the soul.

_Letters. Book ii. Letter iii. 9._

An object in possession seldom retains the same charm that it had
in pursuit.[748-3]

_Letters. Book ii. Letter xv. 1._

He [Pliny the Elder] used to say that "no book was so bad but
some good might be got out of it."[748-4]

_Letters. Book iii. Letter v. 10._

This expression of ours, "Father of a family."

_Letters. Book v. Letter xix. 2._

That indolent but agreeable condition of doing nothing.[748-5]

_Letters. Book viii. Letter ix. 3._

Objects which are usually the motives of our travels by land and
by sea are often overlooked and neglected if they lie under our
eye. . . . We put off from time to time going and seeing what we
know we have an opportunity of seeing when we please.

_Letters. Book viii. Letter xx. 1._

His only fault is that he has no fault.[748-6]

_Letters. Book ix. Letter xxvi. 1._


[748-1] Book vi. Letter xvi. contains the description of the
eruption of Vesuvius, A. D. 79, as witnessed by Pliny the Elder.

[748-2] This comes to inform you that I am in a perfect state of
health, hoping you are in the same. Ay, that 's the old
beginning.--COLMAN: _The Heir at Law, act iii. sc. 2._

[748-3] See Goldsmith, page 402.

[748-4] "There is no book so bad," said the bachelor, "but
something good may be found in it."--CERVANTES: _Don Quixote, part
ii. chap. iii._

[748-5] Il dolce far niente (The sweet do nothing).--_A well known
Italian proverb._

[748-6] See Carlyle, page 579.


(_Translated by M. H. Morgan, Ph. D., of Harvard University._)

This Being of mine, whatever it really is, consists of a little
flesh, a little breath, and the part which governs.

_Meditations. ii. 2._

The ways of the gods are full of providence.

_Meditations. ii. 3._

Thou wilt find rest from vain fancies if thou doest every act in
life as though it were thy last.[749-1]

_Meditations. ii. 5._

Thou seest how few be the things, the which if a man has at his
command his life flows gently on and is divine.

_Meditations. ii. 5._

Find time still to be learning somewhat good, and give up being

_Meditations. ii. 7._

No state sorrier than that of the man who keeps up a continual
round, and pries into "the secrets of the nether world," as saith
the poet, and is curious in conjecture of what is in his
neighbour's heart.

_Meditations. ii. 13._

Though thou be destined to live three thousand years and as many
myriads besides, yet remember that no man loseth other life than
that which he liveth, nor liveth other than that which he loseth.

_Meditations. ii. 14._

For a man can lose neither the past nor the future; for how can
one take from him that which is not his? So remember these two
points: first, that each thing is of like form from everlasting
and comes round again in its cycle, and that it signifies not
whether a man shall look upon the same things for a hundred years
or two hundred, or for an infinity of time; second, that the
longest lived and the shortest lived man, when they come to die,
lose one and the same thing.

_Meditations. ii. 14._

As for life, it is a battle and a sojourning in a strange land;
but the fame that comes after is oblivion.

_Meditations. ii. 17._

Waste not the remnant of thy life in those imaginations touching
other folk, whereby thou contributest not to the common weal.

_Meditations. iii. 4._

The lot assigned to every man is suited to him, and suits him to

_Meditations. iii. 4._

Be not unwilling in what thou doest, neither selfish nor
unadvised nor obstinate; let not over-refinement deck out thy
thought; be not wordy nor a busybody.

_Meditations. iii. 5._

A man should _be_ upright, not be _kept_ upright.

_Meditations. iii. 5._

Never esteem anything as of advantage to thee that shall make
thee break thy word or lose thy self-respect.

_Meditations. iii. 7._

Respect the faculty that forms thy judgments.

_Meditations. iii. 9._

Remember that man's life lies all within this present, as 't were
but a hair's-breadth of time; as for the rest, the past is gone,
the future yet unseen. Short, therefore, is man's life, and
narrow is the corner of the earth wherein he dwells.

_Meditations. iii. 10._

Nothing has such power to broaden the mind as the ability to
investigate systematically and truly all that comes under thy
observation in life.

_Meditations. iii. 11._

As surgeons keep their instruments and knives always at hand for
cases requiring immediate treatment, so shouldst thou have thy
thoughts ready to understand things divine and human, remembering
in thy every act, even the smallest, how close is the bond that
unites the two.

_Meditations. iii. 13._

The ruling power within, when it is in its natural state, is so
related to outer circumstances that it easily changes to accord
with what can be done and what is given it to do.

_Meditations. iv. 1._

Let no act be done at haphazard, nor otherwise than according to
the finished rules that govern its kind.

_Meditations. iv. 2._

By a tranquil mind I mean nothing else than a mind well ordered.

_Meditations. iv. 3._

Think on this doctrine,--that reasoning beings were created for
one another's sake; that to be patient is a branch of justice,
and that men sin without intending it.

_Meditations. iv. 3._

The universe is change; our life is what our thoughts make it.

_Meditations. iv. 3._

Nothing can come out of nothing, any more than a thing can go
back to nothing.

_Meditations. iv. 4._

Death, like generation, is a secret of Nature.

_Meditations. iv. 5._

That which makes the man no worse than he was makes his life no
worse: it has no power to harm, without or within.

_Meditations. iv. 8._

Whatever happens at all happens as it should; thou wilt find this
true, if thou shouldst watch narrowly.

_Meditations. iv. 10._

Many the lumps of frankincense on the same altar; one falls there
early and another late, but it makes no difference.

_Meditations. iv. 15._

Be not as one that hath ten thousand years to live; death is nigh
at hand: while thou livest, while thou hast time, be good.

_Meditations. iv. 17._

How much time he gains who does not look to see what his
neighbour says or does or thinks, but only at what he does
himself, to make it just and holy.

_Meditations. iv. 18._

Whatever is in any way beautiful hath its source of beauty in
itself, and is complete in itself; praise forms no part of it. So
it is none the worse nor the better for being praised.

_Meditations. iv. 20._

Doth perfect beauty stand in need of praise at all? Nay; no more
than law, no more than truth, no more than loving kindness, nor
than modesty.

_Meditations. iv. 20._

All that is harmony for thee, O Universe, is in harmony with me
as well. Nothing that comes at the right time for thee is too
early or too late for me. Everything is fruit to me that thy
seasons bring, O Nature. All things come of thee, have their
being in thee, and return to thee.

_Meditations. iv. 23._

"Let thine occupations be few," saith the sage,[752-1] "if thou
wouldst lead a tranquil life."

_Meditations. iv. 24._

Love the little trade which thou hast learned, and be content

_Meditations. iv. 31._

Remember this,--that there is a proper dignity and proportion to
be observed in the performance of every act of life.

_Meditations. iv. 32._

All is ephemeral,--fame and the famous as well.

_Meditations. iv. 35._

Observe always that everything is the result of a change, and get
used to thinking that there is nothing Nature loves so well as to
change existing forms and to make new ones like them.

_Meditations. iv. 36._

Search men's governing principles, and consider the wise, what
they shun and what they cleave to.

_Meditations. iv. 38._

Time is a sort of river of passing events, and strong is its
current; no sooner is a thing brought to sight than it is swept
by and another takes its place, and this too will be swept away.

_Meditations. iv. 43._

All that happens is as usual and familiar as the rose in spring
and the crop in summer.

_Meditations. iv. 44._

That which comes after ever conforms to that which has gone

_Meditations. iv. 45._

Mark how fleeting and paltry is the estate of man,--yesterday in
embryo, to-morrow a mummy or ashes. So for the hair's-breadth of
time assigned to thee live rationally, and part with life
cheerfully, as drops the ripe olive, extolling the season that
bore it and the tree that matured it.

_Meditations. iv. 48._

Deem not life a thing of consequence. For look at the yawning
void of the future, and at that other limitless space, the past.

_Meditations. iv. 50._

Always take the short cut; and that is the rational one.
Therefore say and do everything according to soundest reason.

_Meditations. iv. 51._

In the morning, when thou art sluggish at rousing thee, let this
thought be present; "I am rising to a man's work."

_Meditations. v. 1._

A man makes no noise over a good deed, but passes on to another
as a vine to bear grapes again in season.

_Meditations. v. 6._

Flinch not, neither give up nor despair, if the achieving of
every act in accordance with right principle is not always
continuous with thee.

_Meditations. v. 9._

Nothing happens to anybody which he is not fitted by nature to

_Meditations. v. 18._

Prize that which is best in the universe; and this is that which
useth everything and ordereth everything.

_Meditations. v. 21._

Live with the gods.

_Meditations. v. 27._

Look beneath the surface; let not the several quality of a thing
nor its worth escape thee.

_Meditations. vi. 3._

The controlling Intelligence understands its own nature, and what
it does, and whereon it works.

_Meditations. vi. 5._

Do not think that what is hard for thee to master is impossible
for man; but if a thing is possible and proper to man, deem it
attainable by thee.

_Meditations. vi. 19._

If any man can convince me and bring home to me that I do not
think or act aright, gladly will I change; for I search after
truth, by which man never yet was harmed. But he is harmed who
abideth on still in his deception and ignorance.

_Meditations. vi. 21._

Death,--a stopping of impressions through the senses, and of the
pulling of the cords of motion, and of the ways of thought, and
of service to the flesh.

_Meditations. vi. 28._

Suit thyself to the estate in which thy lot is cast.

_Meditations. vi. 39._

What is not good for the swarm is not good for the bee.

_Meditations. vi. 54._

How many, once lauded in song, are given over to the forgotten;
and how many who sung their praises are clean gone long ago!

_Meditations. vii. 6._

One Universe made up of all that is; and one God in it all, and
one principle of Being, and one Law, the Reason, shared by all
thinking creatures, and one Truth.

_Meditations. vii. 9._

To a rational being it is the same thing to act according to
nature and according to reason.

_Meditations. vii. 11._

Let not thy mind run on what thou lackest as much as on what thou
hast already.

_Meditations. vii. 27._

Just as the sand-dunes, heaped one upon another, hide each the
first, so in life the former deeds are quickly hidden by those
that follow after.

_Meditations. vii. 34._

The art of living is more like wrestling than dancing, in so far
as it stands ready against the accidental and the unforeseen, and
is not apt to fall.

_Meditations. vii. 61._

Remember this,--that very little is needed to make a happy life.

_Meditations. vii. 67._

Remember that to change thy mind and to follow him that sets thee
right, is to be none the less the free agent that thou wast

_Meditations. viii. 16._

Look to the essence of a thing, whether it be a point of
doctrine, of practice, or of interpretation.

_Meditations. viii. 22._

A man's happiness,--to do the things proper to man.

_Meditations. viii. 26._

Be not careless in deeds, nor confused in words, nor rambling in

_Meditations. viii. 51._

He that knows not what the world is, knows not where he is
himself. He that knows not for what he was made, knows not what
he is nor what the world is.

_Meditations. viii. 52._

The nature of the universe is the nature of things that are. Now,
things that are have kinship with things that are from the
beginning. Further, this nature is styled Truth; and it is the
first cause of all that is true.

_Meditations. ix. 1._

He would be the finer gentleman that should leave the world
without having tasted of lying or pretence of any sort, or of
wantonness or conceit.

_Meditations. ix. 2._

Think not disdainfully of death, but look on it with favour; for
even death is one of the things that Nature wills.

_Meditations. ix. 3._

A wrong-doer is often a man that has left something undone, not
always he that has done something.

_Meditations. ix. 5._

Blot out vain pomp; check impulse; quench appetite; keep reason
under its own control.

_Meditations. ix. 7._

Things that have a common quality ever quickly seek their kind.

_Meditations. ix. 9._

All things are the same,--familiar in enterprise, momentary in
endurance, coarse in substance. All things now are as they were
in the day of those whom we have buried.

_Meditations. ix. 14._

The happiness and unhappiness of the rational, social animal
depends not on what he feels but on what he does; just as his
virtue and vice consist not in feeling but in doing.

_Meditations. ix. 16._

Everything is in a state of metamorphosis. Thou thyself art in
everlasting change and in corruption to correspond; so is the
whole universe.

_Meditations. ix. 19._

Forward, as occasion offers. Never look round to see whether any
shall note it. . . . Be satisfied with success in even the
smallest matter, and think that even such a result is no trifle.

_Meditations. ix. 29._

He that dies in extreme old age will be reduced to the same state
with him that is cut down untimely.

_Meditations. ix. 33._

Whatever may befall thee, it was preordained for thee from

_Meditations. x. 5._

"The earth loveth the shower," and "the holy ether knoweth what
love is."[756-1] The Universe, too, loves to create whatsoever is
destined to be made.

_Meditations. x. 21._

Remember that what pulls the strings is the force hidden within;
there lies the power to persuade, there the life,--there, if one
must speak out, the real man.

_Meditations. x. 38._

No form of Nature is inferior to Art; for the arts merely imitate
natural forms.

_Meditations. xi. 10._

If it is not seemly, do it not; if it is not true, speak it not.

_Meditations. xii. 17._


[749-1] See Publius Syrus, page 712.

A similar saying falls from his lips at another time: "Let every
act and speech and purpose be framed as though this moment thou
mightest take thy leave of life."

[750-1] The translator is in doubt about this passage.
Commentators differ in regard to it, and the text may be corrupt.

[752-1] DEMOCRITUS _apud_ SENECAM: _De Ira, iii. 6; De Animi
Tranquillitate, 13._

[756-1] Fragmenta Euripidis, apud Aristotelem, N. A. viii. 1, 6.

TERTULLIAN. 160-240 A. D.

See how these Christians love one another.

_Apologeticus. c. 39._

Blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church.

_Apologeticus. c. 50._

It is certain because it is impossible.[756-2]

_De Carne Christi. c. 5._

He who flees will fight again.[756-3]

_De Fuga in Persecutione. c. 10._


[756-2] Certum est, quia impossibile est. This is usually
misquoted, "Credo quia impossibile" (I believe it because it is

[756-3] See Butler, pages 215, 216.


(_From "The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers." Translated by C.
D. Yonge, B. A., with occasional corrections. Bohn's Classical Library._)

Alcæus mentions Aristodemus in these lines:--

'T is money makes the man; and he who 's none
Is counted neither good nor honourable.

_Thales. vii._

Thales said there was no difference between life and death. "Why,
then," said some one to him, "do not you die?" "Because," said
he, "it _does_ make no difference."

_Thales. ix._

When Thales was asked what was difficult, he said, "To know one's
self." And what was easy, "To advise another."

_Thales. ix._

He said that men ought to remember those friends who were absent
as well as those who were present.

_Thales. ix._

The apophthegm "Know thyself" is his.[757-1]

_Thales. xiii._

Writers differ with respect to the apophthegms of the Seven
Sages, attributing the same one to various authors.

_Thales. xiv._

Solon used to say that speech was the image of actions; . . .
that laws were like cobwebs,--for that if any trifling or
powerless thing fell into them, they held it fast; while if it
were something weightier, it broke through them and was off.

_Solon. x._

Solon gave the following advice: "Consider your honour, as a
gentleman, of more weight than an oath. Never tell a lie. Pay
attention to matters of importance."

_Solon. xii._

As some say, Solon was the author of the apophthegm, "Nothing in

_Solon. xvi._

Chilo advised, "not to speak evil of the dead."[758-1]

_Chilo. ii._

Pittacus said that half was more than the whole.[758-2]

_Pittacus. ii._

Heraclitus says that Pittacus, when he had got Alcæus into his
power, released him, saying, "Forgiveness is better than

_Pittacus. iii._

One of his sayings was, "Even the gods cannot strive against

_Pittacus. iv._

Another was, "Watch your opportunity."

_Pittacus. vii._

Bias used to say that men ought to calculate life both as if they
were fated to live a long and a short time, and that they ought
to love one another as if at a future time they would come to
hate one another; for that most men were bad.

_Bias. v._

Ignorance plays the chief part among men, and the multitude of
words;[758-5] but opportunity will prevail.

_Cleobulus. iv._

The saying, "Practice is everything," is Periander's.[758-6]

_Periander. vi._

Anarcharsis, on learning that the sides of a ship were four
fingers thick, said that "the passengers were just that distance
from death."[758-7]

_Anarcharsis. v._

He used to say that it was better to have one friend of great
value than many friends who were good for nothing.

_Anarcharsis. v._

It was a common saying of Myson that men ought not to investigate
things from words, but words from things; for that things are not
made for the sake of words, but words for things.

_Myson. iii._

Epimenides was sent by his father into the field to look for a
sheep, turned out of the road at mid-day and lay down in a
certain cave and fell asleep, and slept there fifty-seven years;
and after that, when awake, he went on looking for the sheep,
thinking that he had been taking a short nap.[759-1]

_Epimenides. ii._

There are many marvellous stories told of Pherecydes. For it is
said that he was walking along the seashore at Samos, and that
seeing a ship sailing by with a fair wind, he said that it would
soon sink; and presently it sank before his eyes. At another time
he was drinking some water which had been drawn up out of a well,
and he foretold that within three days there would be an
earthquake; and there was one.

_Pherecydes. ii._

Anaximander used to assert that the primary cause of all things
was the Infinite,--not defining exactly whether he meant air or
water or anything else.

_Anaximander. ii._

Anaxagoras said to a man who was grieving because he was dying in
a foreign land, "The descent to Hades is the same from every

_Anaxagoras. vi._

Aristophanes turns Socrates into ridicule in his comedies, as
making the worse appear the better reason.[759-2]

_Socrates. v._

Often when he was looking on at auctions he would say, "How many
things there are which I do not need!"

_Socrates. x._

Socrates said, "Those who want fewest things are nearest to the

_Socrates. xi._

He said that there was one only good, namely, knowledge; and one
only evil, namely, ignorance.

_Socrates. xiv._

He declared that he knew nothing, except the fact of his

_Socrates. xvi._

Being asked whether it was better to marry or not, he replied,
"Whichever you do, you will repent it."

_Socrates. xvi._

He used to say that other men lived to eat, but that he ate to

_Socrates. xvi._

Aristippus being asked what were the most necessary things for
well-born boys to learn, said, "Those things which they will put
in practice when they become men."

_Aristippus. iv._

Aristippus said that a wise man's country was the world.[760-2]

_Aristippus. xiii._

Like sending owls to Athens, as the proverb goes.

_Plato. xxxii._

Plato affirmed that the soul was immortal and clothed in many
bodies successively.

_Plato. xl._

Time is the image of eternity.

_Plato. xli._

That virtue was sufficient of herself for happiness.[760-3]

_Plato. xlii._

That the gods superintend all the affairs of men, and that there
are such beings as dæmons.

_Plato. xlii._

There is a written and an unwritten law. The one by which we
regulate our constitutions in our cities is the written law; that
which arises from custom is the unwritten law.

_Plato. li._

Plato was continually saying to Xenocrates, "Sacrifice to the

_Xenocrates. iii._

Arcesilaus had a peculiar habit while conversing of using the
expression, "My opinion is," and "So and so will not agree to

_Arcesilaus. xii._

Bion used to say that the way to the shades below was easy; he
could go there with his eyes shut.

_Bion. iii._

Once when Bion was at sea in the company of some wicked men, he
fell into the hands of pirates; and when the rest said, "We are
undone if we are known,"--"But I," said he, "am undone if we are
not known."

_Bion. iii._

Of a rich man who was niggardly he said, "That man does not own
his estate, but his estate owns him."

_Bion. iii._

Bion insisted on the principle that "The property of friends is

_Bion. ix._

Very late in life, when he was studying geometry, some one said
to Lacydes, "Is it then a time for you to be learning now?" "If
it is not," he replied, "when will it be?"

_Lacydes. v._

Aristotle was once asked what those who tell lies gain by it.
Said he, "That when they speak truth they are not believed."

_Aristotle. xi._

The question was put to him, what hope is; and his answer was,
"The dream of a waking man."[761-2]

_Aristotle. xi._

He used to say that personal beauty was a better introduction
than any letter;[761-3] but others say that it was Diogenes who
gave this description of it, while Aristotle called beauty "the
gift of God;" that Socrates called it "a short-lived tyranny;"
Theophrastus, "a silent deceit;" Theocritus, "an ivory mischief;"
Carneades, "a sovereignty which stood in need of no guards."

_Aristotle. xi._

On one occasion Aristotle was asked how much educated men were
superior to those uneducated: "As much," said he, "as the living
are to the dead."[762-1]

_Aristotle. xi._

It was a saying of his that education was an ornament in
prosperity and a refuge in adversity.

_Aristotle. xi._

He was once asked what a friend is, and his answer was, "One soul
abiding in two bodies."[762-2]

_Aristotle. xi._

Asked what he gained from philosophy, he answered, "To do without
being commanded what others do from fear of the laws."

_Aristotle. xi._

The question was once put to him, how we ought to behave to our
friends; and the answer he gave was, "As we should wish our
friends to behave to us."

_Aristotle. xi._

He used to define justice as "a virtue of the soul distributing
that which each person deserved."

_Aristotle. xi._

Another of his sayings was, that education was the best viaticum
of old age.

_Aristotle. xi._

The chief good he has defined to be the exercise of virtue in a
perfect life.

_Aristotle. xiii._

He used to teach that God is incorporeal, as Plato also asserted,
and that his providence extends over all the heavenly bodies.

_Aristotle. xiii._

It was a favourite expression of Theophrastus that time was the
most valuable thing that a man could spend.[762-3]

_Theophrastus. x._

Antisthenes used to say that envious people were devoured by
their own disposition, just as iron is by rust.

_Antisthenes. iv._

When he was praised by some wicked men, he said, "I am sadly
afraid that I must have done some wicked thing."[763-1]

_Antisthenes. iv._

When asked what learning was the most necessary, he said, "Not to
unlearn what you have learned."

_Antisthenes. iv._

Diogenes would frequently praise those who were about to marry,
and yet did not marry.

_Diogenes. iv._

"Bury me on my face," said Diogenes; and when he was asked why,
he replied, "Because in a little while everything will be turned
upside down."

_Diogenes. vi._

One of the sayings of Diogenes was that most men were within a
finger's breadth of being mad; for if a man walked with his
middle finger pointing out, folks would think him mad, but not so
if it were his forefinger.

_Diogenes. vi._

All things are in common among friends.[763-2]

_Diogenes. vi._

"Be of good cheer," said Diogenes; "I see land."

_Diogenes. vi._

Plato having defined man to be a two-legged animal without
feathers, Diogenes plucked a cock and brought it into the
Academy, and said, "This is Plato's man." On which account this
addition was made to the definition,--"With broad flat nails."

_Diogenes. vi._

A man once asked Diogenes what was the proper time for supper,
and he made answer, "If you are a rich man, whenever you please;
and if you are a poor man, whenever you can."[763-3]

_Diogenes. vi._

Diogenes lighted a candle in the daytime, and went round saying,
"I am looking for a man."[763-4]

_Diogenes. vi._

When asked what he would take to let a man give him a blow on the
head, he said, "A helmet."

_Diogenes. vi._

Once he saw a youth blushing, and addressed him, "Courage, my
boy! that is the complexion of virtue."[764-1]

_Diogenes. vi._

When asked what wine he liked to drink, he replied, "That which
belongs to another."

_Diogenes. vi._

Asked from what country he came, he replied, "I am a citizen of
the world."[764-2]

_Diogenes. vi._

When a man reproached him for going into unclean places, he said,
"The sun too penetrates into privies, but is not polluted by

_Diogenes. vi._

Diogenes said once to a person who was showing him a dial, "It is
a very useful thing to save a man from being too late for

_Menedemus. iii._

When Zeno was asked what a friend was, he replied, "Another

_Zeno. xix._

They say that the first inclination which an animal has is to
protect itself.

_Zeno. lii._

One ought to seek out virtue for its own sake, without being
influenced by fear or hope, or by any external influence.
Moreover, that in _that_ does happiness consist.[764-5]

_Zeno. liii._

The Stoics also teach that God is unity, and that he is called
Mind and Fate and Jupiter, and by many other names besides.

_Zeno. lxviii._

They also say that God is an animal immortal, rational, perfect,
and intellectual in his happiness, unsusceptible of any kind of
evil, having a foreknowledge of the universe and of all that is
in the universe; however, that he has not the figure of a man;
and that he is the creator of the universe, and as it were the
Father of all things in common, and that a portion of him
pervades everything.

_Zeno. lxxii._

But Chrysippus, Posidonius, Zeno, and Boëthus say, that all
things are produced by fate. And fate is a connected cause of
existing things, or the reason according to which the world is

_Zeno. lxxiv._

Apollodorus says, "If any one were to take away from the books of
Chrysippus all the passages which he quotes from other authors,
his paper would be left empty."

_Chrysippus. iii._

One of the sophisms of Chrysippus was, "If you have not lost a
thing, you have it."

_Chrysippus. xi._

Pythagoras used to say that he had received as a gift from
Mercury the perpetual transmigration of his soul, so that it was
constantly transmigrating and passing into all sorts of plants or

_Pythagoras. iv._

He calls drunkenness an expression identical with ruin.[765-1]

_Pythagoras. vi._

Among what he called his precepts were such as these: Do not stir
the fire with a sword. Do not sit down on a bushel. Do not devour
thy heart.[765-2]

_Pythagoras. xvii._

In the time of Pythagoras that proverbial phrase "Ipse
dixit"[765-3] was introduced into ordinary life.

_Pythagoras. xxv._

Xenophanes was the first person who asserted . . . that the soul
is a spirit.

_Xenophanes. iii._

It takes a wise man to discover a wise man.

_Xenophanes. iii._

Protagoras asserted that there were two sides to every question,
exactly opposite to each other.

_Protagoras. iii._

Nothing can be produced out of nothing.[766-1]

_Diogenes of Apollonia. ii._

Xenophanes speaks thus:--

And no man knows distinctly anything,
And no man ever will.

_Pyrrho. viii._

Democritus says, "But we know nothing really; for truth lies deep

_Pyrrho. viii._

Euripides says,--

Who knows but that this life is really death,
And whether death is not what men call life?

_Pyrrho. viii._

The mountains, too, at a distance appear airy masses and smooth,
but seen near at hand, they are rough.[766-2]

_Pyrrho. ix._

If appearances are deceitful, then they do not deserve any
confidence when they assert what appears to them to be true.

_Pyrrho. xi._

The chief good is the suspension of the judgment, which
tranquillity of mind follows like its shadow.

_Pyrrho. xi._

Epicurus laid down the doctrine that pleasure was the chief good.

_Epicurus. vi._

He alludes to the appearance of a face in the orb of the moon.

_Epicurus. xxv._

Fortune is unstable, while our will is free.

_Epicurus. xxvii._


[757-1] See Pope, page 317. Also Plutarch, page 736.

[757-2] Mêden agan, _nequid nimis_.

[758-1] De mortuis nil nisi bonum (Of the dead be nothing said but
what is good.)--_Of unknown authorship._

[758-2] See Hesiod, page 693.

[758-3] Quoted by Epictetus (Fragment lxii.), "Forgiveness is
better than punishment; for the one is the proof of a gentle, the
other of a savage nature."

[758-4] See Shakespeare, page 115.

[758-5] In the multitude of words there wanteth not
sin.--_Proverbs x. 19._

[758-6] See Publius Syrus, page 710.

[758-7] "How thick do you judge the planks of our ship to be?"
"Some two good inches and upward," returned the pilot. "It seems,
then, we are within two fingers' breadth of damnation."--RABELAIS:
_book iv. chap. xxiii._

[759-1] The story of Rip Van Winkle.

[759-2] See Milton, page 226.

[760-1] See Plutarch, page 738.

[760-2] See Garrison, page 605.

[760-3] See Walton, page 207.

In that [virtue] does happiness consist.--ZENO (page 764).

[760-4] See Chesterfield, page 353.

[761-1] All things are in common among friends.--DIOGENES (page

[761-2] See Prior, page 288.

[761-3] See Publius Syrus, page 709.

[762-1] Quoted with great warmth by Dr. Johnson
(Boswell).--LANGTON: _Collectanea._

[762-2] See Pope, page 340.

[762-3] See Franklin, page 361.

[763-1] See Plutarch, page 733.

[763-2] See Terence, page 705. Also, page 761.

[763-3] The rich when he is hungry, the poor when he has anything
to eat.--RABELAIS: _book iv. chap. lxiv._

[763-4] The same is told of Æsop.

[764-1] See Mathew Henry, page 283.

[764-2] See Garrison, page 605.

[764-3] See Bacon, page 169.

[764-4] See page 762.

[764-5] See page 760.

[765-1] See Hall, page 457.

[765-2] See Spenser, page 30.

[765-3] Autos epha (The master said so).

[766-1] See Shakespeare, page 146.

[766-2] See Campbell, page 512.

ATHENÆUS. _Circa_ 200 A. D.

(_Translation by C. D. Yonge, B. A._)

It was a saying of Demetrius Phalereus, that "Men having often
abandoned what was visible for the sake of what was uncertain,
have not got what they expected, and have lost what they
had,--being unfortunate by an enigmatical sort of

_The Deipnosophists. vi. 23._

Every investigation which is guided by principles of Nature fixes
its ultimate aim entirely on gratifying the stomach.[767-1]

_The Deipnosophists. vii. 11._

Dorion, ridiculing the description of a tempest in the "Nautilus"
of Timotheus, said that he had seen a more formidable storm in a
boiling saucepan.[767-2]

_The Deipnosophists. viii. 19._

On one occasion some one put a very little wine into a
wine-cooler, and said that it was sixteen years old. "It is very
small for its age," said Gnathæna.

_The Deipnosophists. xiii. 47._

Goodness does not consist in greatness, but greatness in

_The Deipnosophists. xiv. 46._


[766-3] Said with reference to mining operations.

[767-1] See Johnson, page 371.

[767-2] Tempest in a teapot.--_Proverb._

[767-3] See Chapman, page 37.


When I am here, I do not fast on Saturday; when at Rome, I do
fast on Saturday.[767-4]

_Epistle 36. To Casulanus._

The spiritual virtue of a sacrament is like light,--although it
passes among the impure, it is not polluted.[767-5]

_Works. Vol. iii. In Johannis Evangelum, c. tr. 5, Sect. 15._


[767-4] See Burton, page 193.

[767-5] See Bacon, page 169.

ALI BEN ABI TALEB.[767-6] ---- -660.

Believe me, a thousand friends suffice thee not;
In a single enemy thou hast more than enough.[767-7]


[767-6] Ali Ben Abi Taleb, son-in-law of Mahomet, and fourth
caliph, who was for his courage called "The Lion of God," was
murdered A. D. 660. He was the author of a "Hundred Sayings."

[767-7] Translated by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and wrongly called by
him a translation from Omar Khayyám.

Found in Dr. Hermann Tolowiez's "Polyglotte der Orientalischen

Translated by James Russell Lowell thus:--

He who has a thousand friends has not a friend to spare,
And he who has one enemy will meet him everywhere.

OMAR KHAYYÁM. ---- -1123.

(_Translated by Edward Fitzgerald._)

I sometimes think that never blows so red
The Rose as where some buried Cæsar bled;
That every Hyacinth the Garden wears
Dropt in her Lap from some once lovely Head.

_Rubáiyát. Stanza xix._

A Moment's Halt--a momentary taste
Of BEING from the Well amid the Waste--
And, Lo! the phantom Caravan has reach'd
The NOTHING it set out from. Oh, make haste!


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